Certified Facilitator of Adult Learning

Home Up Site Map Testing Center Guidelines Search

2.9  PSI Teaching Strategies 

Module 2- test 2

 Module Two

2.9  Strategies for Teaching and Learning based on Personal Types 

Strategies for Teaching and Learning

Use the following table to select teaching methods appropriate for different types of learners. Quick links to Learner types are:

  1. Extroverts and

  2. Sensors and Intuitors

  3. Thinkers and Feelers

  4. Judgers and Perceivers


 "Favored way of dealing with the outer world"
Extrovert-Introvert Continuum

EXTROVERTS  are active and like to try things out focusing on the outer world of people. 

?        prefer people and actions and use trial-and-error confidently

?        learns by explaining to others.

?        does not know if she understands the subject until she tries to explain it to herself or others.

Extroverts prefer a Teaching approach that uses discussion and cooperative learning.

  • Activities requiring dialogue, cooperative study, and discussion.
  • Extraverts like action, results, and getting the job done, rather than thinking or talking about it. They can be impatient with long, slow, tedious, detailed jobs and dislike complicated procedures. Extraverts like to be around people; they display interest in how other people do their jobs. They are good at greeting people and communicating, in general.


Thinking Aloud Paired Problem Solving (TAPPS) method

  • poses question and provides quiet time for learner
  • designates the explainer and listener within each dyad Explainers explains ideas to listeners. Listeners can (1) ask questions of clarification, (2) disagree, or (3) provide hints when explainers becomes lost
  • Facilitator critiques some explainers’ answers and provides closure

Nominal Group Method

  • Facilitator poses question and provides quiet time for learners
  • Each team member shares ideas with others in a round-robin fashion
  • Teams discusses ideas and reaches closure.
  • Facilitator critiques some team’s answers and provides closure


INTROVERTS are passive; they try to think things through and focus on the inner world of ideas.They:

  • prefer ideas, reflection rather than action, and want to understand something totally before they do it
  • want to develop frameworks that integrate or connect the subject matter.
  • To an introvert, disconnected chunks are not knowledge, merely information.
  • Knowledge means interconnecting material and seeing the "big picture."

Introverts prefer a teaching approach that uses lecture and verbal tasks.

Lectures, complex verbal tasks, and little interpersonal involvement.

Introverts like quiet for concentration and work alone contentedly. They tend to be careful with details and don’t mind working on a project for an extended, uninterrupted period. They have trouble remembering faces and names and may have some problems communicating. Introverts are interested in the ideas underlying things; they like to think things out before acting.

Whole/part/Whole teaching. Present the big picture, fill in the “facts” or chunks of knowledge, then relate them back to the whole picture. (ie. Use Experiential Learning Style)



"Way people gather data" 
Sensing – Intuition Continuum

SENSORS  are practical and pay attention to details; they focus on facts and procedures. 

  • Sensing types use all the five senses and tend to be realistic, fun-loving, practical, observant, and are good with working with facts.
  • Sensing adults prefer organized, linear, and structured lectures


Sensors Prefer a traditional curriculum and step by step instructional methods for teaching.

Structured, step-by-step syllabus, and traditional curricula.

Sensing types dislike new problems unless they’re related to something they’ve solved before (and thus there is a template to guide them); they prefer using skills they’ve developed rather than learning new skills. Sensing people like established routines and seldom make factual errors. They usually work all the way through a problem to a conclusion, work steadily, and with a realistic idea of when the task will be completed. They tend to be good at precise work.

Sensors prefer one of the following 3 methods to organize a lecture

What must be known organizing strategy
first ask:

?        What is (are) the topic’s most essential general principle(s) or goals?Place the answer in a goal box.

?        We then ask: What topic(s) must be known such that learners could achieve the goal?

?        Place these subgoal boxes below the goal box and show an arrow leading from each subgoal box to the goal box.

?        Continue to ask WMBK questions until you interface with material previously covered.

?        You would then present the lecture by starting at the bottom of the diagram and work up towards the goal box.

A-T-A method

?        Present an (A)pplication (problem or mini-case) to the class. The students attempt to analyze and solve the case or problem without the benefit of the facilitators theory or ideas. Applications motivate sensing students to learn the material. Applications answer the question that sensing students often ask, "why am I learning this material?"

?        After the group has struggled with the problem (and sometimes emerged victoriously), the facilitatorpresents the  (T)heory or ideas, and then applies it to the original application.

?        Afterwards the teacher presents additional (A)pplications and has the learners apply the theory.  NOTE: An opening application problem or mini-case should (1) be familiar to learners, (2) engage their curiosity, (3) be almost solvable from previous experiences, and (4) be baffling, or counter-intuitive, if possible. A familiar problem assures sensing students that their experiences have prepared them to address the problem. The third attribute minimizes students’ frustrations. The application should be "just beyond a student’s reach". However, previously learned material or experiences should help students make a reasonable solution attempt. An application that is too significant a leap will cause frustration, and the feeling that the teacher is playing games with the students.

Advanced Organizer Method

The advance organizer provides a set of highly general concepts that subsume the material about to be learned. An advance organizer taps into students’ existing knowledge structures. It helps cross-list new information with already existing information and thus aids learning and knowledge retrieval. It makes the unfamiliar more familiar; it makes the abstract more concrete.

Develop advance organizers by answering the following questions:

?  1. What do learners know that at a very general level is similar to the subject matter about to be taught?

?  2. How can I demonstrate the connections between what is known and what is to be learned?


INTUITORS are imaginative and are more interested in concepts focusing on meanings and possibilities.

  • Intuitive people are more interested in what could be made to happen (as opposed to what’s happening now) and like to look for possibilities inherent in a situation. They tend to be good with generating new ideas and problem solving.
  • Intuitive learners must have the big picture, or an integrating framework, to understand a subject. The big picture shows how the subject

Intuitors prefer a teaching approach that focuses on conceptual understanding and the use of self-instructional methods for teaching.

Focus on concepts, self-instruction, and independent study.

Intuitive people like solving new problems but hate doing the same things over and over. They work in bursts of energy and take a rest between them. They’re patient in complex situations but impatient with routine details. They may be prone to errors of fact and dislike taking their time for precision work.

The discovery method, or the why method

The facilitator provides a demonstration and concludes the demonstration by asking why is this true? Using the discovery method, learners hopefully will discover the reasons underlying the central limit theorem.


"How the person evaluates the world: by logical means or by his own or others’ reaction to it."

*Very Important*: The opposite of a person’s type on this continuum is the most vulnerable area: The person feels most threatened when criticized in this area. If a person is feeling, he will be outraged when told his mental processes are questionable ("That’s illogical!") or not up to par ("Think a little more carefully!"). If the person is thinking, he will take umbrage when told he is not sensitive ("You never listen to me!" or "You only think about yourself.").


THINKERS  are skeptical and their decisions are based on logic and rules.

?        Thinking people are relatively uninterested in other people’s emotions or feelings;

?        they tend to decide impersonally. Thus they may hurt others’ feelings without knowing it and make decisions without considering other people’s opinions/feelings. They can seem hard-hearted.

?        They like analysis, logic, and order.

?        They can function without harmony and are able to reprimand people or fire them when necessary without undue personal trauma.

?        They tend to relate well only to other thinking types

?        Thinking learners like clear course and topic objectives.

Thinkers prefer a teaching approach that uses teacher-directed instructional approaches and peer tutoring.

Teacher directed activities and lecture.

Provide clear course or topic objectives avoid vague words or expressions such as "learners” will appreciate or be exposed to." Rather, objectives are precise and action-oriented.

?        Precise – objectives at three meta-levels of learning: rote, meaningful and integrated, and critical thinking.

?        Action oriented – verbs describe what students must do, not what facilitator will do.

Note: see
Objectives Taxonomy Module  One


FEELERS  are appreciative and their decisions are made on personal and humanistic considerations

?        Feeling types are very aware of others’ feelings.

?        They enjoy pleasing other people and like harmony; they are disturbed if there is disharmony.

?        They need occasional praise and dislike telling other people unpleasant things.

?        They often let decisions be influenced unduly by other people’s (or their own) feelings.

?        Feeling learners like working in groups, especially harmonious groups.

Feelers prefer a teaching approach that uses simulations and case studies together with small group work for teaching.

Simulations and small group work

Guidelines to facilitate group meetings

  1. Make process suggestions to regain session focus.
  2. 2. Keep individuals from personally attacking one another.
  3. Monitor time remaining within a session and gently remind members.
  4. Encourage equal participation among members in discussion phase.
  5. Demonstrate collaborative-seeking (WIN-WIN) behaviors.
  6. Assure that recorder writes legibly.
  7. Respond to group member’s questions to you by restating the question and asking other group members to respond (the boomerang method).
  8. Recognize that all the objectives and goals within a session may not completed. Get group to do the possible given the time constraints.
  9. Use light-hearted (or self-deprecating) humor to break tension.
  10. Keep group enthusiasm high and sell ideas to members


"The amount of order people like in their world."
Judging – Perceiving


set and follow agendas and draw conclusions even without complete data. 

?        Judging types like to plan the work and work the plan.

?        They like things settled and details wrapped up neatly.

?        They are uncomfortable with indecision and feel better after the decision is made: the course is now charted and thus may be run.

?        Judging types want only the essential information so they can get on with the project ("Just give me the assignment and go away!") and don’t like to interrupt their work for something someone else considers to be more urgent.

?        Judging people are decisive, plan-ful and self-regimented.

?        They focus on completing the task, only want to know the essentials, and take action quickly (perhaps too quickly).

?        They plan their work and work their plan. Deadlines are sacred. Their motto is: just do it!

Judgers prefer teaching approach that uses formalized instruction and predictable routines in teaching.

Formalized instruction, predictable routines, and tradition

Judging types tend to be group leaders by what they feel is default; they can’t bear the fact that someone less organized than they might be in charge and they’d have to stand by and watch things deteriorate into what they would call anarchy. Obviously, they think they can do much better in such a situation! If the group is being led by a judging type, those like them usually are comfortable. In fact, a certain amount of appreciate is generated that the group "is not wasting time" and "being disorganized."

Learning Techniques that help Judgers:

?        Speedwriting – Just omit all (or most) vowels. Or develop your own shorthand method. For example, mst stdnts cn lrn spdwrtng in svrl mnts. Jst omt ll or mst vwls.

?        Split Page – Draw a line down center of a notebook page. On the left-hand side, record the lecture. After the session, write a commentary on the right-hand side. Include restating ideas in your own words, finding sources of confusion, identifying key points, looking for links to earlier learned material, and asking what does this mean to me (the student).

?        Color Coding – Use different colors to record ideas. For example, use blue to code major ideas and green to code links to previously learned material.

?        AOR Model In answering a question, first Analyze the question and jot down key ideas, Organize the ideas into a logical sequence, and only then Respond.

?        Taking a Second Look. After making a judgment, go back for a second look and see if there are other perspectives and if the original judgment still stands.


PERCEIVERS are adaptable and require the complete data before drawing conclusions

?        Perceptive people are good at adapting to changing situations.

?        They’re very spontaneous and aren’t bothered by incomplete projects and open-ended situations. It doesn’t bother them to leave on task unfinished and go on to another, and thus they often have many unfinished projects.

?        They may have trouble making decisions and may postpone unpleasant jobs.

?        They want to know all about a new job before they take action and are ready to listen to new views about a problem.

?        Perceptive people are curious, adaptable, and spontaneous. They start many tasks, want to know everything about each task, and often find it difficult to complete a task. Deadlines are meant to be stretched. Their motto is: on the other hand

Perceivers prefer a teaching approach that uses independent study projects as preferred teaching approach.

Less structured programs and independent study programs.

Perceiving types chafe at the rigidity of judging types, although they usually will let them lead since they seem so determined to do so. Perceiving types don’t understand why intuitive types must be "so buttoned up about everything" ("Hey, life is full of uncertainty! Go with the flow!").

Perceptive learners often postpone doing an assignment until the very last minute. They are not lazy. Quite to the contrary, they seek information to the very last minute (and sometimes beyond).

Recommend decomposing a complex project or subject into a series of sub-assignments and providing deadlines for each sub-assignment. The deadlines may keep the perceptive students on target.


Go to 
Module Two,Test 2.



Home ] [ Up ] [ Module 2- test 2 ]

Send mail to
questions or comments about this web site.
Copyright ? 2008 Mountain Valley Center
Last modified: 02/27/08
Facebook Comments