1.6.b. Affective Domain

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1.6.b. Affective Domain

The affective domain deals with the attitudes we wish to develop in our learners. People come to us for help. They attend our seminars and workshops in hopes of making their lives better or easier or more meaningful in some way. However, I’ve experienced too many seminars where participants leave still wishing they could do something for themselves. They acknowledge that the speaker has the answers, but have not been empowered by the speaker to believe that they, too, can accomplish what the speaker has. This is a downfall in many presentations. Either due to lack of knowledge, or just plain ego, the speaker has "given his or her wisdom" without empowering participants to believe in themselves and their own abilities in the same area.

There are five levels to the hierarchy of the affective domain. The hierarchy aspects assumes that if one is able to perform at a higher level, he or she can also perform at each lower step.

The first level in the affective domain is RECEIVING – which simply means that the learner is able to direct his or her attention toward the preferred stimuli. He or she “attends” to you when you speak to him. Within receiving are 3 additional hierarchies:

  1. AWARENESS – the student is aware of the stimuli – You!;
  2. WILLINGNESS TO RECEIVE – the learner is willing to tolerate a given stimulus, not to avoid it. – ex. Attends (carefully) when others speak
  3. CONTROLLED or SELECTED ATTENTION – The learner controls attention so that favored stimulus is selected and attended to despite competing and distracting stimuli. For example: Listens carefully for, and remembers names of person to whom it/she is introduced.

I recently had a participant in a workshop I couldn’t get to first base with because he was unwilling to attend. Every time I began to explain a treatment procedure, His eyes would drift off and I knew he just wasn’t “with me”. When I finally confronted him on the behavior, he response was that he was a very talented person and could think about several things at once, that he had heard me but was using the time to work on something else. I tested him later by documenting the number of questions he asked and mistakes he made on the procedure – saying “but I didn’t know that!”, when, if he had listened the first time and asked questions, he would have known it. Sound familiar?

The next level of the Affective Hierarchy is RESPONDING – the learner is beginning to take more responsibility for initiating action.

  1. In ACQUIESCENCE IN RESPONDING, the learner makes a response, but has not fully accepted the necessity for doing so. An example would be; He or she reads assigned literature.
  2. In WILLINGNESS TO RESPOND – the learner is sufficiently committed to exhibiting behavior that he or she does so voluntarily, without fear of punishment. For example: Engages on his own in reading a variety of articles about the subject
  3. And in SATISFACTION IN RESPONSE – this voluntary doing is accompanied by pleasure and enjoyment. The learner takes pleasure in conversing with other participants about the subject of the workshop.

VALUING that a thing, phenomenon, or behavior has worth is next on our hierarchy. The learner has internalized or accepted a value which now has come to be used by him or her as his or her own criterion of worth. In valuing we find:

  1. ACCEPTANCE OF A VALUE – in which the learner’s position is still somewhat tentative – the belief is not firmly founded yet.
  2. PREFERENCE FOR A VALUE – in which there is sufficient commitment to the value to pursue it, seek it, and want it. An example might be: Initiates group group action for the improvement of health care regulations.
  3. COMMITMENT in which the learner believes the value at a high degree of certainty – i.e.. becomes loyal to the profession and its values.

Further still up our hierarchy comes ORGANIZATION, which is the beginnings of building a value system.

In CONCEPTUALIZATION OF A VALUE, the quality of abstraction is added to the characterizations of consistency and stability in valuing. For example: finding out and crystallizing the basic assumptions which underlie a code of ethics for the profession. and ORGANIZATION OF A VALUE SYSTEM which brings together a complex of values into an ordered relationship with one another. For example: Judges people of various races, cultures, national origins and occupations in terms of their behavior as individuals.

The highest level of the affective domain is CHARACTERIZATION BY A VALUE OR VALUE COMPLEX

The individual acts consistently in accordance with the values he or she has internalized at this level, and his or her behavior is described and characterized as a person by these pervasive, controlling tendencies AND these beliefs, ideas, attitudes have been integrated into a world view. Within this level are:

  1. GENERALIZED SET or orientation and predisposition to act in a certain way, For example: The habit of approaching problem solving objectively.
  2. CHARACTERIZATION or one’s view of the universe, philosophy of life – a value system having as its object the whole of what is known or knowable. Example: Develops Develops a consistent philosophy of life.

Becoming familiar with this domain, writing objectives for it and measuring learner change and accomplishment is one essential to meeting instructional objectives.

AFFECTIVE DOMAIN IN DETAIL

1.0 RECEIVING (ATTENDING)

These divisions are based on a continuum from the passive position on the learner’s part to the learner directing his or her attention toward the preferred stimuli.

    1.1 AWARENESS

  • Learner is aware of the learning stimuli ( ie. The teacher, the film, the book…)
    1.2 WILLINGNESS TO RECEIVE

  • The learner is willing to tolerate a given stimulus, not to avoid it.
  • Attends carefully when others speak.
    1.3 CONTROLLED OR SELECTED ATTENTION

  • The learner controls attention so that favored stimulus is selected and competing stimuli is ignored
  • Listens carefully for, and remembers, names of persons to whom he/she is introduced.

2.0 RESPONDING

The learner is doing something with the event, besides merely perceiving it. There is an increasing internalization and responsibility on the learner’s part.

    2.1 AQUIESCENCE IN RESPONDING

    The learner makes a response, but has not fully accepted the necessity for doing so.

  • When asked, the student reads the assigned literature.
    2.2 WILLINGNESS TO RESPOND

    The learner is sufficiently committed to the behavior that he or she does it without fear of punishment

  • Engages on his or her own in reading a variety of articles about the subject.
    2.3 SATISFACTION IN RESPONSE

    The above voluntary doing is accompanied by pleasure and enjoyment.

  • The learner takes pleasure in conversing with different instructors about the subject.

3.0 VALUING

Believing that a thing, phenomenon, or behavior has worth. The learner has internalized or accepted a new value which now has come to be used by him or her as a measure of worth.

    3.1 ACCEPTANCE OF A VALUE

    The learner has a somewhat tentative belief in the value.

  • The learner has a sense of responsibility when listening to the subject matter from various sources.
    3.2 PREFERENCE FOR A VALUE

    The learner now pursues, seeks, and/or wants the value.

  • The learner initiates group action for the improvement of health regulations.
    3.3 COMMITMENT

  • The learner believes in the value at a high degree of certainty
  • The learner is loyal to various groups in which her or she holds membership.

4.0 ORGANIZATION

The building of a value system

    4.1 CONCEPTUALIZATON OF A VALUE

  • Value consistency, stability, and abstraction.
  • The learner finds out and crystallizes the basic assumptions which underlie a code of ethics and are the basis of faith.
    4.2 ORGANIZATION OF A VALUE SYSTEM

    Brings a complex of values into an ordered relationship with one another.

  • The learner judges people of various races, cultures, and occupations in terms of their behavior as individuals.

5.0 Characterization By A Value Or Value Complex

The individual acts consistently in accordance with the values he or she has internalized. His or her behavior is described and characterized as a person by these controlling tendencies and the integration of these beliefs, ideas, attitudes into a world view.

    5.1 GENERALIZED SET

  • The person has an orientation or predisposition to act in a certain way.
  • The learner has a habit of approaching problems with a positive attitude..
    5.2 CHARACTERIZATION

    One’s view of the universe, philosophy of life – a value system having as its object the whole of what is known or knowable.

  • The learner develops a consistent philosophy of life.

Be sure to take the Self Test at the top of the page before proceeding to your next unit,1.6c Psychomotor Domain of Learning



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